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In-situ TEM indentation

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In situ TEM bright-field observation of the initial loading of displacement-controlled indentation on Al–2.6%Mg (video frames at a frame rate of 30 frames/s). The first dislocations are nucleated between (a) and (b), i.e. prior to the apparent yield point (*). Although individual dislocations cannot easily be distinguished in the video frames, their nucleation is evidenced by an abrupt change in image contrast: before nucleation, only thickness fringes can be seen, whereas more complex contrast features become visible at the instant of nucleation.
Ref: Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 181924 (2007)